CT/DT, linear/non-linear, variant/non-variant, causal and non-causal system state/dynamic system, interconnection of systems. System properties: linearity: additivity and homogeneity, shift-invariance, causality, stability, realizability

Open loop and closed loop systems, effect of feedback on control system and on external disturbances, linearization effect of feedback, regenerative feedback

Concept of stability of linear systems, effects of location of poles on stability, necessary conditions for stability, Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria, relative stability analysis, Root Locus concept, guidelines for sketching Root-Locus.

Nyquist stability criterion, assessment of relative stability using Nyquist plot and Bode plot (phase margin, gain margin and stability).

Concept of Positive feedback, Classification of Oscillators, Barkhausen criterion, Types of oscillators: RC oscillator, RC Phase Shift, Wien Bridge Oscillators. LC Oscillator: Hartley, Colpitt’s, Clapp and Crystal oscillator.

Ideal and Practical, Input offset voltage, offset current, Input bias current, Output offset voltage, thermal drift, Effect of variation in power supply voltage, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), Slew rate and its Effect, PSRR and gain bandwidth product, frequency limitations and compensations, transient response, analysis of TL082 datasheet.

simple OP-AMP Voltage regulator, Fixed and Adjustable Voltage Regulators, Dual Power supply, Basic Switching Regulator and characteristics of standard regulator ICs such as linear regulator, Switching regulator andlow-drop out regulator. Study of LM317, TPS40200 and TPS7250

Maxwell’s bridge (Inductance and Inductance-Capacitance), Hay’s bridge, Schering bridge (High voltage and Relative permittivity), Wein bridge. Impedance measurement by Qmeter.

Tunnel diodes, Varactor diodes, Schottky diode, Photo diodes, Photodetector, LED, solar cell.

Rectifiers-Half wave, Full wave, Bridge rectifier, filter circuits, Voltage regulation using shunt & series regulator circuits, Voltage regulation using IC.

Laplace transform: solution of Integro-differential equations, transform of waveform synthesized with step ramp, Gate and sinusoidal functions, Initial & final value theorem, Network Theorems in transform domain.

Memory Management: Different Memory Management Techniques – Partitioning, Swapping, Segmentation, Paging, Paged Segmentation, Comparison of these techniques, Techniques for supporting the execution of large programs: Overlay, Dynamic Linking and Loading, Virtual Memory – Concept, Implementation by Demand Paging etc.

Concurrent Processes : Real and Virtual Concurrency, Mutual Exclusion, Synchronization, Inter- Process Communication, Critical Section Problem, Solution to Critical Section Problem : Semaphores – Binary and Counting Semaphores, WAIT & SIGNAL Operations and their implementation. Deadlocks: Deadlock Problems, Characterization, Prevention, Avoidance, Recovery.

Second law of thermodynamics, heat engine, heat reservoir, Refrigerator, heat pump, Carnot's cycle, statements of second law Reversible and irreversible processes, consequence of second law, Clausious.

Inequality , Entropy, T-S diagrams, Available & Unavailable energy Availability Concept .